Each planet has numerous Sanskrit synonyms. The standard order of the first seven corresponds to that of the seven weekdays cf. The sun Ravi 3. The moon Candra 4. Mercury Budha 9. Cauda Draconis Ketu 5. Jupiter Guru 6. The apparent orbit of the sun around the earth forms one such circle, known as the ecliptic.
The orbit of the moon, describing another circle inclined to the ecliptic, gives rise to two diametrically opposed nodes: a northern or ascending one, where the moon crosses the ecliptic in northward motion, and a southern or descending one. The others, possessing larger shapes and motion, are said to be planets. Many Sanskrit synonyms exist of the planetary names given. Primary motion: the houses The movements of the planets across the sky are of two distinct kinds, commonly known as primary and secondary.
The primary motion is what we observe most obviously in the daily movement of the sun: owing to the rotation of the earth around its axis, the sun appears each morning to rise in the east, culminate at midday, and set in the west at nightfall. During the course of 24 hours, it thus describes a full circle around the earth, from east to west — and so, though not as easily observed, do all the planets, along with their background of stars.
The primary motion is therefore relative to the place of observation, and is measured with reference to the cardinal points: the horizon or east-west line, and the meridian or northsouth line. Present-day Hindu astrologers are divided on the issue of houses, and two main schools of thought exist. In this whole-sign house school, whichever sign happens to be on the eastern horizon at the time of a nativity or corresponding event is called the first house; the following sign becomes the second house, and so forth.
In other words, only the east-west line is employed in determining the houses, and the north-south line is ignored. The second school makes use of both the meridian and the horizon. How1 See, for instance, Ojha ff. The eastern horizon, known as the ascendant lagna , here marks the centre of the 1st house; the culminating point or midheaven khamadhya , that of the 10th house; the western horizon, that of the 7th; and the anti-culminating point, that of the 4th.
The centres of the remaining eight houses are found by equally trisecting the four resulting ecliptical divisions. Each house extends from the junction preceding its cusp to the junction succeeding it: thus, the 1st house begins halfway between the 12th cusp and the ascendant, and ends halfway between the ascendant and the 2nd cusp. Depending on the latitude of the place of observation, a given zodiacal sign may contain one, two, or even more house cusps, or none at all.
On the other hand, even rather early texts do contain passages which can be understood only as referring to unequal houses. On the whole, therefore, I feel 1 E. Secondary motion: the zodiac While the planets and stars continually rise and set on the horizon, the relationship between planets and stars is itself slowly changing in the opposite direction, from west to east. Should we, on a number of consecutive days, observe the stars on the horizon just prior to sunrise, we would thus notice a gradual shifting of their positions from one day to the next, so that the sun each morning appears against a slightly different background of stars.
This comparatively slow process is known as secondary motion. As the primary motion of the planets is the basis of the twelve mundane houses, so their secondary motion is the basis of the twelve zodiacal signs. The zodiacal signs of Hindu astrology, though not fully identical with these constellations — the latter being of unequal extension — are dependent on and constant in relation to them. Hindu astrology hereby differs from its European counterpart, which since the time of Ptolemy has allowed the 1 Tester The vernal equinox takes place around 21 March every year. This in turn is due mainly to a lack of consensus as to which star marks the beginning of Aries, or of any zodiacal sign.
Lahiri for the computation of its official almanac. The luminaries are always in direct motion, the nodes always retrograde. The chronological terms most often employed are defined below. The so-called true nodes, gaining in popularity among modern practitioners and calculated by a somewhat different method, do occasionally go direct. The latter computation is based on the mean motion of Jupiter madhyamaguru through the zodiacal signs; for the former, cf. Prabhava Hemalamba 2. Vibhava Vilamba Pramoda Vyaya Plava Anala 6.
Sarvajit Bhava Virodhin Krodhin Yuvan Raudra Khara Durmati Nandana Dundubhi Vijaya Jaya Saumya Vikrama Manmatha Krodhana Durmukha Owing to the difference in length between the Jovian and the soli-lunar year, however, this Jovian reckoning is currently 12 years ahead of the soli-lunar Bhat This system is popular in the Tamil-speaking areas. Owing to the varying velocity of the moon, the durations of tithis, though never far from 24 hours, are not uniform. Each day begins at sunrise, and the ruler of the first hour is considered the ruler of the day in its entirety. Thus, for instance, birth in the pre-dawn hours of a western calendar Thursday would for astrological purposes be considered a Wednesday birth.
Tester This is done by a consideration of the natural and accidental significations of the planets. The style shown here, with the zodiacal signs in fixed positions, is prevalent in South India. In contrast to this, the diamondshaped diagram Q common in the North always shows the rising sign at the top. Sun Moon Malefic. The self; kings; the father; gold; glory; fire. Benefic if waxing, malefic if waning. The mind; queens; the mother; silver; water. Mars Malefic.
Strength; soldiers; brothers; earth; fighting; weapons; wounds; enemies. Mercury Benefic with benefics, malefic with malefics. Speech; scholars; learning; intelligence; arts and crafts. Jupiter Benefic. Wisdom; offspring; priests; ministers; teachers; dignity; piety; wealth. Venus Benefic. Lust; semen; love-making; beauty; marriage; wives; enjoyments; carriages. Saturn Malefic. Suffering; death; servants; poverty; misfortune; low company; imprisonment. Ketu Malefic. Figure 9: natures and significations of the planets1 The accidental significations of a planet vary from one horoscope to another, resting as they do on the relationships formed by the planets to the mundane houses, each of which governs certain areas of life.
Some major significations of the houses are shown in a separate table see fig. Each of the twelve zodiacal signs is considered to be the proper home of — i. The luminaries are assigned Leo and Cancer, 1 The significations listed in this table are not based on a single text, but rather represent the elements most commonly assigned to the planets in Sanskrit astrological works.
As references for many of them, however, cf. The lunar nodes are often left out of such lists; even when they are included, there is little consensus regarding their significations. Wealth; food; learning; speech; household. Younger siblings; courage; strength. Mother; home; land; house; carriages; happiness.
Sixth Illness; debts; enemies; wounds. Seventh Marriage; spouse; sexual intercourse; trade. Eighth Longevity; death; suffering; misfortune. Ninth Father; teachers; religious duty dharma ; pilgrimage. Tenth Actions; livelihood; rank; honour; fame. Eleventh Elder siblings; gains; prosperity. Twelfth Losses; imprisonment; exile.
Should the ascendant rising point fall in 1 As with the planets fig. For references, cf. Assuming a fairly even distribution of house cusps — typical for areas near the equator — Venus would also rule the 8th house falling in its other sign, Taurus ; similarly, Mars would rule the 2nd and 7th houses, Jupiter the 3rd and 6th, etc. Occasionally houses are reckoned from other points than the actual ascendant, e. This practice may be considered a hybrid of natural and accidental significators. Making the sun the starting-point of the chart, the 9th house reckoned from it therefore particularly signifies the father.
Similarly, as Saturn and the 8th house both signify death, so does the 8th house reckoned from Saturn; etc. Sorting the information In the interpretation of an actual horoscope, natural and accidental significations are both taken into account and balanced against each other. To illustrate, we may imagine a nativity where Mars occupies the 5th house as ruler of the 9th see fig. BPHS 7. BPHS From the placement of a single planet, multiple conclusions can thus be drawn, some of which may mutually conflict. This situation obviously calls for hierarchizing approaches to interpretation.
Deductions based on house rulership would thus outweigh those based on universals. Another order of priority concerns the 1 BPHS Occupation and rulership were discussed above. Three kinds of partial aspects are theoretically recognized, though only full aspects are normally employed in practice. The luminaries and inferior planets Mercury and Venus have full aspects only on the opposite 7th sign, whereas the superior planets Mars, Jupiter and Saturn have two additional full aspects each see figure The nodes are not normally included in the aspect scheme.
Planet Full Three-qrt. Half One-qrt. Sun 7 4, 8 5, 9 3, 10 Moon 7 4, 8 5, 9 3, 10 Mars 4, 7, 8 — 5, 9 3, 10 Mercury 7 4, 8 5, 9 3, 10 Jupiter 5, 7, 9 4, 8 — 3, 10 Venus 7 4, 8 5, 9 3, 10 Saturn 3, 7, 10 4, 8 5, 9 — Figure planetary aspects to signs reckoned from their own places 1 BPHS Yet another hierarchizing approach concerns the proximity of a planet or its aspect to the cusp of a house.
The PhD states: In the houses, [a planet] whose degree equals that of the house cusp gives the results of that house in full; at the junction, there is no result; in the intermediate space, one should consider the planets propor2 tionately. The VM adds a further dimension to this rule by distinguishing between a planet applying to i. It is thus possible to distinguish at least three sets of criteria by which the influence of planets on a given house would be hierarchically arranged: 1. Relation of the planet to the house: a by occupation b by aspect c by rulership 3.
Proximity of the planet to the house cusp: a identical b applying c separating Applying this model to our hypothetical chart above, with a few additions see fig. As there are no aspects on the house, the influence of Mars is unmixed and will dominate the development of 5th house affairs, such as children. This influence will be mainly a salutary one, owing to the benefic rulership of Mars, though some ill-effects owing to its malefic and violent nature cannot be ruled out.
The 9th house, on the other hand, is unoccupied but closely aspected by Saturn, a malefic both by nature and by its rulership of the 6th house. This influence outweighs that of the well-placed ruler, and hardships must therefore be expected in connection with 9th house matters, such as the father. Dignities and debilities Once the tendency of a given combination for good or evil has been ascertained in accordance with the natural and accidental properties of the planets, their power to manifest this tendency must be judged.
The propensity of a planet to do good increases with its strength or dignities, whereas its propensity to do evil increases with its weakness or debilities: In exaltation, the good results are pronounced full; one quarter less in its rejoicing; half in domicile; and a mere quarter in a friendly sign. They are proclaimed to be half a quarter when peregrine, and nil in fall, combus- 91 Chapter 4 tion, or an inimical sign.
So too the wise should declare the evil [results] 1 in reverse order. The consideration of strength thus becomes yet a tool with which to differentiate and choose between possible interpretations of planetary positions in the horoscope. Broadly speaking, sources of planetary strength and weakness may be divided into four categories: zodiacal position; house postition; motion and light; and planetary interrelations.
Zodiacal position As was shown above, each of the seven planets rules one or two zodiacal signs. A planet occupying its own sign or domicile svabha is in a position of strength or dignity. Signs not belonging to any of these categories are termed neutral or peregrine samabha. The fundamental zodiacal dignities and debilities of each planet are shown, in descending order of strength, in fig. In addition to these, there is the general consideration that a planet 1 BPHS 3. CA, p. The [good] result [of a planet] when an infant is one quarter; half the result when a boy; full, when a youth; a 1 trifle, when old; and nil, when the planet is dead.
The junction of two signs and the last degree of a sign in particular is considered very harmful, outweighing every kind of dignity according to some authors: Though a planet be exalted or occupy a friendly sign, endowed with [all kinds of] strength beginning with the sixfold strength — if occupying a junction [of signs], it will not give any [good] results. Considering thus, 2 one should pronounce [the results] in its period.
In the period of [a planet] occupying a sign junction, there is grief, illness, and other suffering. The period of [a planet] occupying the 3 thirtieth degree brings about death. Much importance is attached to the division of a sign into smaller segments varga , of which six, seven, ten or sixteen varieties are commonly listed see fig.
Each segment is assigned a planetary ruler, and most correspond symbolically to one of the zodiacal signs. Tester ff. Several vargas have one or more synonyms. But Sastri s. Even a malefic planet is said to give benefic results if occupying predominantly benefic divisions, and vice versa. Benefic divisions are generally defined as those of exaltation, domicile and friendly signs, and those ruled by benefic planets, while those of debilitation or inimical signs, and those ruled by malefic planets, are considered malefic.
House position The twelve mundane houses are variously classified, as shown in fig. Angular houses are positions of strength; succedent houses are weaker than the angular, and cadent houses weaker still. The most unfortunate places are houses 6, 8 and 12, the 6th being somewhat better than the other two on account of its increasing nature. Sastri s. Depending on the natural and accidental significations of the planets involved, an aspect or conjunction may be considered a dignity or a debility for the planet conjuncted or aspected.
Among the conjunctions, a particular subset is that of planetary combat graha-yuddha , in which one planet is considered defeated by the other. Different definitions of this condition are found in classical texts, some requiring the combating planets to be conjunct by latitude as well as longitude. As with conjunctions and aspects, mutual reception may be a dignity or debility depending on the planets involved, their rulerships, etc.
In the main, however, they draw on the elements enumerated above. For this purpose, Hindu astrology employs two main techniques: time-cycles and transits. Every block or period comprises a sub-cycle of shorter periods similarly allotted, each of which may be further subdivided. These two techniques will be discussed below. The BPHS describes two methods of calculating this starting-point, namely, by time or by longitudinal arc.
The result are the expired years, etc. HS Subtracting this from the total duration yields the balance. As the velocity of the moon is far from constant, the results produced by the two methods may vary considerably, but the text does not state any preference; indeed, there is no evidence that the author was aware of the fact. In each group, rulerships of the nine lunar mansions are allotted to the nine planets see fig. This discrepancy is known as lunar parallax.
There is, however, an important peculiarity in the system: the even-numbered cycles all run backwards through the order of the signs, beginning with Scorpio and ending with Sagittarius — see fig. The white cells mark the forward savya cycles; the darker cells, the backward apasavya ones. Some texts assign special meanings to these jumps. In the beginning of the period of benefics, [results] arising from houses [manifest]; those arising from the occupation of various signs, in the middle; and at the end of the period, those arising from aspects: thus do 1 all [teachers] declare the differentiation of stellar periods.
That house of the moon occupying the said signs will be the first, second, etc. Therefore, one should pronounce the results according to the current movements of the planets [reckoned] from its 1 sign. For each of the nine planets, separate good or evil results are predicted as they pass through each of the twelve signs, beginning with the natal moon sign.
Therefore, every man here is said to have eight [birth] signs, and from these [arise] good and evil results when they are joined or disjoined [by the planets]. At an early stage of its development, however, the method was considerably rationalized by the conversion of particular good or evil predictions into a binary point system. A 1 PhD PhD In such a table, a sign may hold from 0 to 8 bindus, thus averaging at 4. The total number of bindus being , the average number in a sign will be 28, signs with more bindus giving benefic effects, and those with less, malefic effects.
It should be emphasized again that my purpose has not been to critically edit any or all of these texts, but rather to examine them as found, from the point of view of the genre they represent. The present chapter discusses the distinguishing characteristics and overall contents of the three texts; the next presents a number of representative excerpts in Roman transliteration along with an annotated translation. While no attempt has been made to adjust the grammatical peculiarities of the texts discussed below in conformity with the standard rules of classical Sanskrit, obvious scribal errors have been noted and corrected.
Unless otherwise noted, the text given in the GN excerpts follows the first of the two manuscripts in my possession GN1 , which is generally less corrupt than the second GN2. Bracketed text indicates explanatory additions. Chapter 5 1 completed. The texts presented below belong to this category. FORM 5. While the occurrence of copying errors in this process cannot be ruled out, they are not likely to affect the overall intelligibility of the texts.
Mysore I. The first manuscript was copied by P. Maribasavaradhya and compared by K. Mahantha Devaru on 11 May, ; the second, copied by K. Mahantha Devaru and compared by P. Maribasavaradhya presumably a month later, on 13 June, 19. The former has pages of 24—30 lines of text; 1 2 For one such instance, see Ritter ff. The DhN is stated to have been copied by P.
Sitharaman from a paper manuscript numbered R. Srinivasaraghavan on 17 November, Only the first page and a half have numbered verses. The authorship and transmission of all three texts are unknown. There is no division into chapters in the conventional sense, but rather as will be discussed below into a number of individual, independent horoscope readings. In the absence of numbered sections and verses, passages in the texts will be referred to below by page and line. Locating and dating the texts The three texts display many similarities with regard to form as well as contents.
If [there are] others, they will meet with death. And [he will take] a second wife secretly; the result will be the gain of a 3 wife in the Cola country. He will be educated, intelligent and discriminating, skilled in two kinds of writing; in some cases he will have [knowledge of] three kinds of writing, [conducting] examinations in the knowledge of Dravidian 4 [languages] [ There is thus little doubt that the texts all originate in South India, and most probably in Kerala itself.
The Acyuta mentioned in the legend is considered by Pingree as the historical author of the CKN, and dated to before c.
Dating the texts with any certainty by their linguistic characteristics, as discussed below, is hardly more feasible. The most serviceable means at our disposal for arriving at an approximate date is thus the contents of the texts — in particular, the astronomically datable horoscopes contained therein. Secondly, the horoscopes found in each of the texts all date from a period of less than a century. As the number of possible planetary configurations is very great, an author seeking merely to illustrate a theory with hypothetical examples would almost certainly produce charts corresponding to far more divergent dates.
The resulting charts are often incomplete; on the other hand, the positions of the slower-moving planets Jupiter, Saturn, and the lunar nodes along with one or two of the faster-moving ones is sufficient for general dating Chapter 5 purposes. The datable charts thus arrived at belong to the late 17th and 18th centuries. The charts belong to the late 18th and 19th centuries. As in the AN, calendaric information is presented along with the zodiacal positions of the planets, and the time frame of the nativities is late 18th to 19th century.
Assuming, as seems reasonable, that the texts were composed in the lifetimes of the subjects whose horoscopes they discuss, the GN can thus be roughly dated to the 18th century; the AN and DhN, to the 19th. The text also shows an acquaintance with modern technology: On account of machines printing letters, he will have an independent 2 employment. Language and style All three texts are written in a simple, largely ungrammatical Sanskrit characterized by astrologer B.
Phonologically, the language of the texts is characterized by frequent loss of sandhi or standardized phonetic changes. Only very rarely do they touch on particular horoscopes, or attempt to demonstrate a rule using practical examples; and even then, the exemples given are typically partial and mythological in character. Following brief benedictory invocations, the AN and DhN launch directly into this discussion. In the main, however, information on the religious universe of 1 Cf.
May there be good fortune! By the maturation of previous sin, she will suffer on account of 2 children. After his next birth [he will be] liberated mukta , as the ruler of the twelfth house is aspected by Jupiter [and] the ruler of the sign occupied by the ruler of the ascendant 4 is in a benefic division in the sign of the ninth house. And he attains a maximum life span of sixty-three years. Chapter 3. When the ruler of the eighth house is in the twelfth sign and the ruler of the ascendant is in the fifth, by [this] combination of mutual enmity he has a combination for medium longevity.
In the fifth [major planetary] period [from birth], in the middle of the period [or] at the end of the period, death is possible. In the period of Venus there are two dangers: in the middle of the period and at the end of the period. In the period of Ketu there is great fear and danger of untimely death.
The question of causal versus non-causal views on the relation between astrological indications and human events is not explicitly treated in the texts. The proper object of such propitiation is not always stated, but may often be reasonably presumed to be the afflicting planet itself: 1 GN In the period of the ruler of the ascendant, good and evil results are equal. By propitiation he should strive towards happiness; he will have bodily health. He should give away a dark-blue garment, [perform] the donation of sesame oil on a Saturday 1 GN By the donation of a golden [image of the] sun one should predict the gain of offspring, due to the obstruction having been 2 removed at the completion of that propitiation.
He 3 should give a diagram of eighty-one squares to the astrologer. Having worshipped a silver [image of the] moon, he should present it to 4 the astrologer. By a donation to the astrologer, [the native] will have [long] life, health 5 and children. All other varga demarcations coincide with the above, making the total number of varga demarcations in any sign He himself will be the third child, having no elder brothers; two elder sisters die prematurely in [their] childhood.
One younger brother is fortunate, long-lived and happy. Later, an[other] younger brother also dies prematurely in [his] childhood. Two or three issues die prematurely in [their] childhood, [but] two elder half-sisters and a brother are fortunate. When the ruler of the ascendant is in the twelfth sign, and the ruler of the fourth is in the eleventh sign, [the native] is born in a holy place in the vicinity of a great river. For one born in the latter part, the mother has long life; in the former part, the father has long life, without a doubt.
In the latter part, the paternal grandmother dies in his sixteenth year; to one born in the former part, [this year] is fatal to the paternal grandfather. Although clear enough in practice, this principle is not explicitly discussed in the three manuscripts studied here.
The purport of the final sentence is not quite clear, but the idea may be similar to that expressed in PM 2. In this yoga, a man has few children, is of virtuous mind and desirous of virtuous children [ A similar idea the myriogenesis doctrine is outlined by the 4th century Roman astrologer Firmicus Maternus in his Mathesis; but to my knowledge no horoscope interpretations actually based on this doctrine have been recorded.
If you read the Myriogenesis of Aesculapius which he claimed Mercury had revealed to him, you will find that from individual minutes, without any help of the planets, the order of the whole chart can be explained. For the ascendant, located in individual minutes, explains the whole order of life most clearly and obviously: its appearance and experiences, kinds of danger, and the first day of life. Since the individual sign consists of 30 degrees and minutes, the location of the ascendant in one minute describes the entire fate of men.
The frequent occurrence of such information within the readings of individual horoscopes is characteristic particularly of the GN: [When Saturn and Jupiter] are in the division of Virgo, one should predict suffering to the king, grief to the ministers, etc. In the chapter on 1 GN As discussed earlier, horoscopes of individuals are cast for the time and place of birth.
Characteristic of the AN and DhN is the importance attributed, at least in theory, to all these three points in time; or rather, to the signs then rising. The head ascendant is Aries, and the [ascendant of] impregnation is the same: therefore most results [will be 3 seen] in this [ascendant], and a few from the [ascendant of] birth. Impregnation is the first [moment for which to cast the] ascendant; the second is the appearance of the head; the third one should know to be falling on to the ground.
Seeing [them], results become [apparent]. Seeing [all] three, results become [apparent]. The practice is most developed in the DhN, which routinely employs a specialized nomenclature for such placements. The DhN frequently appears 1 AN When the ruler of the seventh joins the division of the twelfth house, the result is two wives. When Venus is in the division of Sagittarius, the division of the sixth [house], the result is two 2 wives. Ketu in the division of Virgo joins the division of the second house.
When Jupiter is in the second house [of the natal horoscope], it will give a good wife. When Jupiter in transit comes to the division of the ruler of 4 the seventh house, he will obtain a wife. One should judge [thus] for exact conjunctions from the first to the twelfth house. When Saturn exactly joins the division of the ruler of the twelfth house in the sixth house, or occupies the sixth house, [the native] is in danger of bodily suffering. Thus should an expert astrologer judge the twelve houses. There will be prosperity month by month in accordance with the strength of the lunar mansions.
When Jupiter trines Venus, [the native] will gain daughters and sons. Considering the time thus, an expert 2 astrologer should judge [the results]. The dignity or debility of the transiting planets are sometimes included in the evaluation: In the subperiod of Mercury [there will be] bodily ill-health now and then in an evil month; in the sub-sub-period antara of Saturn, in an evil 1 month, at the time when Saturn is combust.
Structure of readings As mentioned above, the bulk of all three texts is made up of individual horoscope readings, the style of which is highly formulaic and repetitive. Readings occurring within each text vary with regard to length and amount of detail; but most conform to the standardized pattern or structure outlined here. The direction of the street east-west or north-south and that faced by the house are often stated, as is the intensity of labour pains, and possible danger to mother or child.
Another topic almost invariably brought up at the beginning of a reading is the number of brothers and, secondarily, sisters: whether elder or younger, long-lived or not. The financial and professional status of brothers, and marital status of sisters, are typically discussed. The ascendant of birth and of the appearance of the head are given, being either identical or adjacent signs.
The ascendant of impregnation is generally said to be a trinal sign to the ascendant at birth, and the solar month of impregnation is sometimes stated. The structure of this delineation is partly thematic, partly chronological, often commencing with a description of the father, the happiness the native will derive from him, and his time of death. A similar but briefer and even more stereotyped description of the mother then follows, typically emphasizing her devotion to her husband, her dutiful efforts to secure the increase of the family, and her liberal dispensing of food.
The narrations of adult life are more detailed and individualized, though similar in focus: marriage and childbirth, income and livelihood, status and profession are topics of universal interest. Both MSS have granthe dviyuta-. May prosperity reign! If you are pleased with me, if I enjoy [your] favour, [then] kindly recount to me in brief the science of astrology by which, O lord of gods, I may have knowledge of what is past and what is yet to come.
What I was thinking should be told, that same thing, my child, you have this day asked for. The priest-preceptor of the gods and deity of the planet Jupiter. My conjecture; cf. His object fulfilled, the brahmin Acyuta then joyfully returned home and taught his pupils that science, the devakerala. They variously adorned [that] composition with important parts.
The standard procedure is to multiply the years expired from the beginning of the Kali era by 12, adding the expired solar months in the current year, and converting the result into synodic soli-lunar months by adding 7 intercalary months for every solar months. The expired synodic months thus obtained are multiplied by 30 and the result added to the number of tithis expired in the current month.
This number is divided by 7, and the remainder gives the day of the week, beginning with Friday. Multiplied by the Kali years, along with the months, from [ The number of days multiplied by the revolutions should be divided by the divisors. The result is the zodiacal sign. The remainder, multiplied by 30 [and] divided by the divisors, is the degree; the remainder [of that], multiplied by 60 [and] divided [by] the divisors, [and] once more [so multiplied and divided] are the [minutes and] seconds [of arc].
This is the mean [longitude of the] planet. The multiplier of the sun [ A division of [ However, cf. And when the ascendant is unknown, [the astrologer] will predict falsely. It should further be noted that my division of the stanzas into names differs slightly from that indicated in the MSS, both of which break up no. For the names as such, many of which are apparently corrupt, cf.
Santhanam ix ff. Birth is in the vicinity of a great river, in a north-south street, in a house on the eastern side, its door facing north. There is no doubt about this. When the ruler of the ascendant is in the sign of the seventh house, and the ruler of the eleventh house is in the sign of the fourth, [the native enjoys] fortune after his thirtieth year [and] has health and a robust physique.
A deity blessing his or her devotee is thought to do so by a sidelong glance rather than a direct, and perhaps too forceful, one. He has gains from agriculture, cattle, etc. When the ruler of the ninth or the tenth house  by the exaltation rulers of the ascendant [or] the fourth house, [the native is] able and obtains carriages: a wise man travelling to the four corners [of the world]. He will marry [a girl born] in a land south or south-east of his birth place. He will have intercourse with his own wife on forbidden days [and at forbidden] times. There is fortune after his twenty-second year, and prosperity on account of brahmins.
At the time when Saturn is in Scorpio, there will be a battle of kings in the land.
In the subperiod of the ruler of the tenth house, a foreign lord mlecchaprabhu may die. Increase of happiness from pleasing royal officers and abundance of wealth and grains in every house is always [the result] at the commencement of the period of Venus; there are . The MS has -svecca-. Later [all] will be well, [by] a monetary alliance dhanasandhi between two kings. The native will have abundant fortune, travels back and forth, and income of wealth.
His master, too, will have abundant [good] results, great sovereignty extending to his heirs. When Jupiter transits the eighth house, he will accomplish outstanding [acts of] piety dharma. In the vicinity of a great river, strife will break out. If by his [religious] merit he survives, death [occurs] in his sixty-eighth year, in the three [solar] months beginning with Taurus, or else in Capricorn. Previously he was born as a brahmin; next he will take birth as a Vedic [brahmin].
After his next birth [he will attain] liberation, when the twelfth house is aspected by Jupiter. My conjecture. There is a combination for elder brothers and sisters, and a younger sister. The transfer takes place in infancy, and the result is [that he is brought up] alone. Birth takes place by day, at the end of the second watch, in Scorpio ascendant. In another book, the time of death is specifically determined: in his thirty-second and twentyfifth years he will be in danger of death.
In the period of a killing [planet] there is danger from killers, etc. In his fifth year, eighth year [or] twelfth year, [there is] misfortune to his father. In the period of Saturn [the last] rites for his father and mother, etc. His two fathers die in the great junctions susandhi following his twelfth year. He lives well for a long time on account of his adoptive mother, devoted to his mother, intent on caring for his mother. By nature given to dwelling on thoughts within, he is always dishonest within, well-versed in things unseen, intelligent, surmounting obstacles to learning; of dark complexion and middle stature, eyes broad as lotus [petals].
He is said to have an independent employment, happy after his twentieth year; earning wealth and grains by business and [cultivation of his] land, capable of earning wealth [to the extent of] regaining more than ten thousand lost [before]; talkative, truthful, avaricious and proud [but] discriminating, distinguishing between right and wrong, secretly given to virtue dharma. In the period of Saturn, there is gain of a wife; in the period of Mercury, separation. One [wife] is sickly, [but] from the other he has much happiness. Endowed with little fortune, he has combinations for sons and daughters, etc.
He obtains goods from various sources, and thinks of intercourse with other women, very avaricious and miserly, reddish-dark [in complexion] and of handsome appearance. The [astrological] result is said to be [having] two or three wives, [or] an [additional] consort equal to a wife.
He obtains a wife from a fortunate family, having his mother-in-law and father-in-law [both alive]. He has [only] some happiness from his wife: when the ruler of the [house of] wife is joined to [the division of] the eighth house, [she will be] sickly, of feeble body and dejected mind. Two sons have long life, and two daughters give him happiness: the rest are said to die. On account of his sons he does good deeds. After thirty he attains good fortune; at twenty-five, he is wellreputed. There will be two or three houses [and] marriages [for him, and] one should predict prosperity in business.
People in his own place will be happy; [he will] travel to other places, with undertakings yoga in the south and north, [and] be happy in the eastern part. He will be renowned in various places and collect jewelry there. By [this] independent employment, he will have happiness for as long as he lives. Now and again the [astrological] result will be trade in gold and jewels. For this [he will be] much honoured at the royal palace, [although] of a dishonest disposition. Fond of quarrel, fiercely inimical to his kinsmen, uncorteous [and] given to violence: [such] is [one] born in Scorpio ascendant.
Lacking [full] elder brothers, he has an [elder] half-brother. When Venus is in the fourth house from the moon, and Jupiter is in an angle from the moon, birth is in the vicinity of a great river, in a large village or town, in a renowned place. Birth is in a holy place, in an east-west street; he is born on the northern side.
Born on a Friday, he is prosperous. Birth takes place by day, at the end of the first watch, in Taurus [ascendant]. The ascendant of [the appearance of] the head is Aries; [the ascendant of] impregnation is its trinal sign. The [ascendant of] impregnation is certainly a trine to [that of] birth, [or] the seventh [from it]. When Jupiter is in an angle from the moon, it wards off afflictions from snake [deities]; by the merit of previous [lives] there is happiness, and he is favoured by fate.
When the ruler of the ascendant is in a movable sign, the ruler of the eighth house in a movable sign, and the ruler of the twelfth house in a common sign, long life is declared. His age [at death] is [in] the beginning of [the division of longevity called] long: he attains the age of seventy-one.
In his sixtieth year there is danger to his body, and also in his sixty-fifth. At fifty, there is danger to his body, and sometimes at forty. At twenty-five there is bodily suffering; he is afflicted by illnesses of wind, has illnesses of wind and bile and is afflicted by an illness of the stomach.
On that account his mind is troubled, and one should predict weakness in the body. He should feed the brahmins; the feeding of a hundred brahmins [is prescribed] for him. Thereafter there is happiness, and relief from gulmaroga. The exact nature of this illness is unknown to me. When Saturn exactly transits the divisions of the rulers of the sixth, eighth and twelfth houses, in the period and subperiod of evil planets, one is in danger of bodily misfortune.
When Saturn occupies any house, one has afflictions to [the area represented by] that house; or [when it is] in trine to the [natural] significator, there is certainly affliction to that house. Danger is declared from the transit of Saturn; by pleasing Saturn he will be happy.
He should please Saturn [by] recitation, and he should please Mars. Having examined the respective periods, there will be happiness and prosperity by [the performance of] propitiation. He practises the Vedic [rites], has faith in gods and brahmins, has little learning [but] is wealthy, capable of earning wealth, earning money from various sources.
With his first wife he has the happiness of one son and also a daughter [who] has combinations for male offspring. The son of his first wife has combinations for two wives, is without male offspring [but] has two daughters. One of [his] half-brothers is fortunate [but then] dies, having medium longevity. This father will die in the vipad period. In the vipad period, in the subperiod of the moon, when Saturn is in late Gemini or in Cancer, one should predict the death of his father.
The MS has ravi-. She has a full brother, one brother, [who] will die an evil death [by] afflictions from illnesses of wind, etc. He is without male offspring [but] has one daughter. He will be educated, intelligent and discriminating, devoted to the study of the Veda. In his fifth or sixth [year] he will begin [to learn] the letters [of the alphabet]. AV He carries him for three nights in his belly: when he is born the gods gather about to see him. Following the wedding there is happiness; he is happy [by] his own effort. After [the age of] twenty there is success; at twentytwo, he is happy with his wife.
At twenty-six, the native suffers particular illness in his body: afflictions by illness of wind, etc. After [the age of] thirty-three there is relief from gulmaroga; thereafter one should predict happiness [from his] wife and son. When the ruler of the house of children is in its fall, and the house of children is aspected by Saturn, the birth of a son is delayed, and he should propitiate the snake [deities]. By bathing at Setu[bandha] and other meritorious [acts] he should please the manes; thereafter a son will be born, and he will have happiness from [that] son.
At thirty-five a son is born, [and] he will have a son and a daughter: one son and happiness [from him], and likewise [one] daughter. At forty he is fortunate, happy on account of a brahmin master: comfort and happiness and gain of wealth [come to this] man, and the native [knows] happiness, is happy for as long as he lives. In that period there will be suffering.
In the beginning of the period there is happiness, and at the end of the period, in the subperiod of Jupiter, death will occur. Textbooks authored over the better part of two millennia — many of them ascribed to semi-divine sages — show only minor variations, and the theory and practice of the art, even in the west, is closely interwoven with belief in Hindu precepts and Hindu ritual observances. Like medicine, astrology is concerned with diagnosis, prognosis, and prescription.
The object diagnosed is the particular point in space-time at which anything begins, e. From the qualities inherent in this point the latent promise of events to come may be read; the projection of such events in time constitutes the prognosis. This division of the art, allowing for a high degree of predictability as well as for a certain measure of individual freedom, makes it excellently suited for accomodation in a worldview dominated by the concept of karman.
Teachings on karman thus serve as a means of legitimizing astrology. Once this connection is made, the practice of astrological divination will serve in its turn to uphold the authority of the karman theory. While some texts identify the planets as manifestations of this supreme deity for the sake of distributing the results of karman, others reject such causal language in favour of a view of the planets as mere signs. This question of causality, absent from the less complex divinatory systems, arises from the representations of the planets as powerful deities to be propitiated when ill-placed.
Astrological divination is based on observation of the movements of the planets — including the sun, moon, and lunar nodes — through the twelve signs of the zodiac by their proper motion, and along with the zodiac through the twelve mundane houses by diurnal motion. From the superimposition of these two coordinate systems, astrological delineation is carried out by a consideration of the natural or universal significations of planets on one hand, and their accidental or particular significations on the other. Despite these differences, however, the common trait of predictions being read out to clients from a pre-existent text, allegedly of great antiquity and divine or semi-divine origin, justifies the use of a common designation for both varieties of the art.
The language of the texts is a simple, formulaic and repetitive Sanskrit, deviating from the classical language both phonologically, morphologically and syntactically.
The focus of attention is on the present world, soteriological matters being mentioned only rarely and in general terms. Symbolic correspondences between afflicting planet and method of propitiation are common, though not universal. By serving as an object of propitiation, the astrologer of the texts becomes a full-fledged mediator between the divine planets and man: not only disclosing to the client his fate as dictated by the celestial deities, but accepting on their behalf the worship intended to remedy its harsher aspects.
The texts thereby reverse the trend of Sanskrit astrological works to concern themselves only with universals and not with particular nativities. It is the triumph of cosmos over chaos, even at the sacrifice of the illusion of individual uniqueness. Washington Atharvaveda Hymns of the Atharva-Veda: together with extracts from the ritual books and the commentaries. Delhi Leipzig Bombay Text and transl. Swami Vijnanananda, alias H. New Delhi Text and Hindi transl. Varanasi Delhi — Madras — Varanasi — Carmen astrologicum Dorothei Sidonii Carmen astrologicum.
Annotated text and transl. Olivelle, pp. London — Enneads Plotinus, vol. London Delhi, s. Text with Sanskrit-Hindi commentary. Sukthankar, S. Belvalkar, P. Poona — Mathesis Ancient Astrology: Theory and Practice. Firmicus Maternus; transl. New Jersey Tetrabiblos Tetrabiblos. Cambridge, Mass. Mysore Baroda Text with Sanskrit-Hindi commentary by S. Bhat, M. Daniel, S. Daniel ed. New York. Halbfass, W. Hammer, O. Holt, P. Jha, D. Judge, W.
Kane, P. V, pt. Krassa, P. Luck, G. Markel, S. Meena R. Neugebauer, O. Raghavan, K. Kunjunni Raja et al. Ojha, G. Olcott, H. Olivelle, P. Patel, C. Pingree, D.
Today's rashifal for Leo rashi. Humane signs are those represented by human figures. We offer you the best free horoscope readings. The Hindu zodiac, being sidereal, does not maintain this seasonal alignment, but there are still similarities between the two systems. While the study of both astronomy and astrology are thousands of years old, the simplified "sun sign" astrology of daily horoscope columns didn't appear until relatively recent times. Astrological calendar dates daily horoscope virgo horoscope vierge novembre travail.
Potter, K. Radhakrishnan, S. Atlantic Highlands. Raman, B. Then Chariklo will be conjunct Saturn on A key to astronomical terms appears below the calendar. Colliding stars will add to another cosmic shift in , a Great Conjunction of Jupiter and Neptune on April 12, 24Pis59, the oceanic sign ruled and co-ruled by expansive Jupiter and nebulous gas giant, Neptune. Tropical Zodiac. January 13, bobmoler. When she grasps the side of the kayak and tries to climb back in, he chops her frozen fingers off, one by one with an axe.
The largest publisher of astrology software, including the best-selling program Solar Fire. The annual report of the Section in the October Journal records that two conspicuous comets had been under observation and that Tempel's comet 10P had been observed by Mr Denning with a 10" 25 cm telescope. It is also available in CSV i. Lucky breaks and popularity can lead to an inflated ego and other excesses in li Buckle Down! This is not a drill! Chiron Retrograde Astrology King, Chiron Retrograde dates and times, Mercury Sign cafe astrology zone - Seek and meet people born on the same date as you.
The Nautical Almanac. Free Astro Ephemerides - Seek and meet people born on the same date as you. The Nautical Almanac The free online Nautical Almanac The world's most complete source of free celestial navigation information. KIC is a contact binary whose 11 hr orbital period is rapidly changing. Start and End Dates for Saturn Returns.
Full-size ephemerides for Includes daily positions of Chiron. You are very fortunate but also have to make your own luck. Here are the ephemeris files for years Some midpoint ephemeris files are further down on the page Lesson Swiss Ephemeris inside. In recent years Ceres, Pallas, Juno, Vesta, Chiron and the Black Moon Lilith have gained steadily in numbers of astrologers who include them in preparing birth charts for consultation and research.
For each month of , the ephemeris shows the tropical longitude of the Sun, Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto and North Node of the Moon; sign ingresses planets or bodies changing sign ; planetary stations; lunar ingresses; Void Moon; lunar phases; and eclipses.
Intensifying the impact on the U. Spacewatch data leads to Science article estimating number of Near Earth Asteroids and their properties! Saturn and Pluto will make a single conjunction on As we explore this timeline, we will see a progression of planetary alignments that start with a dramatic challenge but that will eventually lead to a radically expansive change in our lives and in our world.
Many Human Design practitioners and astrologers find meaning in the natal position of Chiron and its transits along a life trajectory. Of these events, around 30 occultations are expected to be visible from the earth, indicating that a number of Triton occultation events should be visible from major observatories.
Based on the apparent exponential decay of its period, the two stars were predicted to merge in early resulting in a rare red nova outburst. The Chiron linkage is the most powerful linkage in relationships. Midnight ephemeris. The search reached an R magnitude of about You are welcome to reproduce the data below for non-profit purposes , providing you credit In-The-Sky.
Distance million km 2. As her finger joints fall into the sea, they turn into seals, whales, polar bears, fish, dolphins and walruses. A dynamic timeline of planetary alignments, including Uranus, Saturn, Makemake, Juno, Jupiter and Pluto, occurs from mid through Sun square Jupiter natal gives great opportunities for success but also some tests of character along the way. Chiron Ephemeris She is known for her original research on new celestial objects.
Historically, positions were given as printed tables of values, given at regular intervals of date and time. Astrology has been central to her life since , and from she has offered consultations, writing and teaching in the UK and abroad. Political extremes. Besides the regular planets, the ephemeris contains the minor planet Chiron and the mathematical point 'Lilith' or 'Dark Moon'. Chiron Ephemeris for the Human Design System, - The table below is easy to interpret, because it provides the exact dates and times when Chiron entered a zodiac sign and remained there till Chiron enters the next sign, with times Due to apparent retrograde motion, Chiron may move back and forth over a particular zodiacal degree several times so for example if you look in an ephemeris you may see Chiron reach 0 Taurus 00, move forward a few degrees, go retrograde back to 0 Taurus 00 and back into late Aries, then go direct and move forward again reaching 0 Taurus Then, the interaspects between the two charts, and not the natal aspects, are drawn up, i.
Find you zodiac signs as per sun, mars, jupitor, chiron, north node, south note, eros, psyche and the moon. Saturn square Sun transit is one of the more challenging transits to deal with. Each planetary hour of the planetary day is ruled by a different planet. Ephemeris of the order of last observations. Longitude, Declination, Latitude and Daily Aspectarian This lightweight, large format ephemeris is your ideal companion volume for "The New American Ephemeris for the 21st Century, at Midnight". Because Chiron spends about 4 years in each sign, the meanings do not have a distinct personal meaning except through distinguishing groups of people from groups of people born in other Chiron signs.
Dit is een service voor de wat gevorderde astrologie beoefenaars. Michelsen] on Amazon. Her father fears for his life and tosses Sedna overboard. It also starts the apparition of Mars. January 1, by J McCaul. Retrograde Cycles this Year. Therefore it represents the marriage and romance target. Transiting Chiron reached this point on April 23, , again in retrograde on Sept.
Moon at 19 Cap in the 11th so it has begun for me. Not the partner we think we want those are ruled by Venus and Mars , but the one we need and actually wind up with. Voor de gevorderde astrologie beoefenaars. It can represent a forced turning point where you feel pressured and burdened. The most common eclipse question is, "When is the next eclipse? Finally, we discuss future improvements and plans for our mass estimation algorithm. Each calendar includes moon events, lunar void of course dates, planetary ingress, direction changes and more. Eclipse energies have a long shelf life. This conjunction ends the apparition of Mars.
In the process, each Rashi zodiac sign experiences the position of Saturn for a period of two and a half years, before moving into the next sign. Rique Pottenger Neil F.